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LC-ICP-MS: The most often used hyphenated system for speciation analysis

(21.06.2007)


Liquid chromatography (LC) is an extremely versatile technique with numerous advantages:
  • both the stationary phase and the mobile phase may be altered to achieve the desired separation,
  • separations can be further enhanced by the addition of additives (chiral additives, ion pair reagents, surfactants) to the mobile phase,
  • separations can be enhanced by changing the mobile phase during the analysis (gradient elution),
  • an enourmous variety of stationary phases are commercially available based on a rich variety of separation principles such as
    • normal phase chromatography (NPC)
    • reversed phase chromatography (RPC)
    • reversed phase ion pair chromatography (IPC)
    • micellar chromatography
    • ion exchange chromatography (IEC)
    • size exclusion chromatography (SEC).
  • Usually, minimum sample preparation is required.

 

Fig. 1 Coupling of HPLC with ICP-MS

Liquid sample introduction is the standard in ICP-MS, therefore coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS in the simplest form is just the connection of the column outlet with the nebulizer of the sample introduction system via a transfer tubing.  It is not a surprise that the hyphenated system resulting from the coupling of liquid chromatography and ICP-MS is the most often used system for speciation analysis related to the ICP-MS detection. About 3/4 of all publications related to ICP-MS hyphenated techniques for speciation analysis describe the use of LC-ICP-MS.


Fig. 2: Development of publications related to LC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis

(Comment: This figure was created in August 2014 and therefore cannot contain the true number of publication published in 2014. Even the falling numbers in 2012 and 2013 could be biased by incomplete collection of papers that have been published during the last two years.)


LC-ICP-MS has important advantages for speciation analysis:

  • Complex chromatograms are reduced to simple "elementograms"
  • Quantification of even unknown element species is possible with respect to the detected element due to compound independent sensitivity without the necessity of having standards.
However the hard ionization and atomization power of the plasma source also has some drawbacks:
  • All molecular information is lost
  • Species characterization is limited to chromatographic retention times

Looking more closely onto the hyphenated system, some details have to be discussed:

  • contamination with metallic compounds arising from the chromatographic system (pump, valve, tubing) or the stationary and mobile phase,
  • dispersion effects, that means the influence on the sample introduction system on the separation power of the chromatographic system,
  • plasma solvent load effects, that means the influence on the mobile phase on the stability and ionization power of the inductively coupled plasma.

Plasma solvent load effects limit the free choice of the mobile phase, since now the mobile phase has to be selected both with respect to the separation task but also with respect to the degree of tolerance by the ICP. Tolerance by the ICP can be enhanced by reducing the flow-rate, which can be achieved by reducing the size-factor of the HPLC system from standard to micro-HPLC or even nano-HPLC. Tolerance of the ICP with nano-liter flow rates is so high that nearly any solvent can be introduced with total consumption nebulizers.

On the other hand, the negative influence of dead-volumes and other poor design factors on the chromatographic separation power is the more pronounced the smaller the flow rate of the system is.  Therefore, especially careful  design considerations are necessary for nano-HPLC coupling while standard system are less critical.

With respect to the type of MS detection system, one has to consider the transient character  of the chromatogtaphic signals. Depending on the number of simultaneous channels that have to be monitored (only one in the  simple case of a single element speciation), systems that can either simultaneously collect data on different channels or can do fast sequential measurements will have advantages.



 Tutorial material related to HPLC

Animation of Dual Head HPLC Pump
Animation of sample loop HPLC injections
Sigma-Aldrich: HPLC Trouble-Shooting
IonSource.com: Introduction to Capillary Chromatography
IUPAC: Chromatography Nomenclature and Definitions
LC-GC Europe: Glossary of Liquid-Phase Separation Terms
Prof. Yuri Kazakevich, Prof. H. M. McNair, On-line Textbook on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

UCDAVIS CHEMWIKI: HPLC
Upchurch Scientific: HPLC Introduction 
Waters: HPLC - High Performance Liquid Chromatography



 Reviews of LC-ICP-MS (newest first)

Daniela Kretschy, Gunda Koellensperger, Stephan Hann, Elemental labelling combined with liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantification of biomolecules: A review, Anal. Chim. Acta 750 (2012) 98–110. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2012.06.040

Maximilian Popp, Stephan Hann, Gunda Koellensperger, Environmental application of elemental speciation analysis based on liquid or gas chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry - A review, Anal. Chim. Acta, 668/2 (2010) 114-129. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2010.04.036

John E. Carr, Adam E Dill, Kaho Kwok, Jon W. Carnahan, G.K. Webster, LC-ICP-MS for Nonmetal Selective Detection of Pharmaceuticals, Curr. Pharma. Anal., 4/4 (2008) 206-214. doi 10.2174/157341208786306234 

Kevin A. Francesconi, Michael Sperling, Speciation analysis with HPLC-mass spectrometry: time to take stock, Analyst (London), 130/7 (2005) 998-1001.
DOI: 10.1039/b504485p

Maria Montes-Bayón, K. DeNicola, Joseph A. Caruso, Liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 1000 (2003) 457-476. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00527-2

Joanna Szpunar, Ryszard Lobinski, Liquid Chromatography with ICP MS Detection, in: Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis, RSC, Cambridge, 2003, pp. 53-64.

Bernhard Michalke, The coupling of LC to ICP-MS in element speciation - Part II: Recent trends in application, Trends Anal. Chem. (Pers. Ed.), 21/3 (2002) 154-165. doi:10.1016/S0165-9936(02)00303-5

Bernhard Michalke, The coupling of LC to ICP-MS in element speciation: I. General aspects, Trends Anal. Chem. (Pers. Ed.), 21/2 (2002) 142-153. doi:10.1016/S0165-9936(01)00146-7




Studies on the methodology and instrumentation of LC-ICP-MS


Lothar Rottmann, Klaus Gustav Heumann, Development of an on-line isotope dilution technique with HPLC/ICP-MS for the accurate determination of elemental species, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 350/4-5 (1994) 221-227. doi: 10.1007/BF00322473

Cristina Rivas, Les Ebdon, Steve J. Hill, Effect of different spray chambers on the determination of organotin compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 11/12 (1996) 1147-1150. DOI: 10.1039/JA9961101147

Warren R.L. Cairns, Les Ebdon, Steve J. Hill, A high performance liquid chromatography - inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry interface employing desolvation for speciation studies of platinum in chemotherapy drugs, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 355/3-4 (1996) 202-208. doi: 10.1007/s0021663550202

Anders Tangen, Roger Trones, Tyge Greibrokk, Walter Lund, Microconcentric Nebulizer for the Coupling Of Micro Liquid Chromatography and Capillary Zone Electrophoresis With Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 12/6 (1997) 667-670. doi: 10.1039/a607623h

Mary Kate Donais, How to Interface a Liquid Chromatograph to an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer for Elemental Speciation Studies, Spectroscopy (Eugene, Oreg.), 13/9 (1998) 30-35.

Clayton B'Hymer, Karen L. Sutton, Joseph A. Caruso, Comparison of four nebulizer-spray chamber interfaces for the high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of arsenic compounds using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 13/9 (1998) 855-858. doi: 10.1039/a801645c

 Erik H. Larsen, Method optimization and quality assurance in speciation analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B, 53/2 (1998) 253-265.
doi: 10.1016/S0584-8547(97)00137-7

B. Do, S. Robinet, D. Pradeau, F. Guyon, Application of central composite designs for optimisation of the chromatographic separation of monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate and of selenomethionine and selenite by ion-pair chromatography coupled with plasma mass spectrometric detection,  Analyst (London), 126/5 (2001) 594. DOI: 10.1039/b008169h

Enrique G. Yanes, Nancy J. Miller-Ihli, Use of a parallel path nebulizer for capillary-based microseparation techniques coupled with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for speciation measurements, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B,   59/6 (2004) 883-890. doi:10.1016/j.sab.2004.03.005 

Lars Bendahl, Bente Gammelgaard, Sample introduction systems for reversed phase LC-ICP-MS of selenium using large amounts of methanol - Comparison of systems based on membrane desolvation, a spray chamber and direct injection, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 20/5 (2005) 410-416. DOI: 10.1039/b415717f

Lars Bendahl, Stefan Stürup, Bente Gammelgaard, Steen Honoré Hansen, Ultra-Performance LC-ICP-MS - a fast technique for speciation analysis, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 20/11 (2005) 1287-1289. DOI: 10.1039/b508653a

Zs. Stefánka, Gunda Koellensperger, Gerhard Stingeder, Stephan Hann, Down-scaling narrowbore LC-ICP-MS to capillary LC-ICP-MS: a comparative study of different introduction systems, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 21/1 (2006) 86-89. DOI: 10.1039/b511629e

Yasumitsu Ogra, Development of Miniaturized HPLC-ICP-MS for Speciation of Bio-Trace Elements, Biomed. Res. Trace Elem., 19/1 (2008) 34-42. available at: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/brte/19/1/19_1_34/_article

Kirk E. Lokits, Patrick A. Limbach, Joseph A. Caruso, Interfaces for capillary LC with ICPMS detection: A comparison of nebulizers/spray chamber configurations, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 24/4 (2009) 528-534. DOI: 10.1039/b820121h

Kenneth Neubauer, Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Column Types for Speciation Analysis by LC-ICP-MS, Spectroscopy, 24/11 (2009) 30-33. online available here

Daniel Proefrock, Hyphenation of capillary-LC with ICP-MS and parallel on-line micro fraction collection for MALDI-TOF-MS analysis - complementry tools for protein phosphorylation analysis, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 25/3 (2010) 33-344. doi: 10.1039/b921145d

Christina Rappel, Dirk Schaumlöffel, Improved nanonebulizer design for the coupling of nanoHPLC with ICP-MS, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 25 (2010) 1963–1968. DOI: 10.1039/c0ja00050g 

Bjoern Meermann, Michael Kießhauer, Development of an oxygen-gradient system to overcome plasma instabilities during HPLC/ICP-MS measurements using gradient elution, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2011, 26, 2069. DOI: 10.1039/c1ja10177c

Claudia Swart, Olaf Rienitz, Detlef Schiel, Alternative approach to post column online isotope dilution ICP-MS, Talanta 83 (2011) 1544–1551. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2010.11.062

Claudia Swart, Olaf Rienitz, Detlef Schiel, Impact of pump flow fluctuations on post column online ID-ICP-MS, Anal Bioanal. Chem. 401 (2011) 2025–2031. DOI 10.1007/s00216-011-5293-8

Pablo Rodríguez-González, Vladimir N. Epov, Christophe Pecheyran, David Amouroux, Olivier F.X. Donard, Species-specific stable isotope analysis by the hyphenation of chromatographic techniques with MC-ICPMS, Mass Spectrom. Rev., 31 (2012) 504–521. DOI: 10.1002/mas.20352

Simon Prikler, Denis Pick, Jürgen W. Einax, Comparing different means of signal treatment for improving the detection power in HPLC-ICP-MS, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 403 2012) 1109–1116. DOI 10.1007/s00216-011-5571-5

Silvia Diez Fernández, Naoki Sugishama, Jorge Ruiz Encinar, Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Triple Quad ICPMS (ICPQQQ) as a New Tool for Absolute Quantitative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics, Anal. Chem., 84 (2012) 5851-5857. doi: 10.1021/ac3009516

William Maher, Frank Krikowa, Michael Ellwood, Simon Foster, Rajani Jagtap, George Raber, Overview of hyphenated techniques using an ICP-MS detector with an emphasis on extraction techniques for measurement of metalloids by HPLC–ICPMS, Microchemical Journal 105 (2012) 15–31. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2012.03.017 

Pablo Rodríguez-González, Vladimir N. Epov, Christophe Pecheyran, David Amouroux, Olivier F.X. Donard, Species-specific Stable Isotope Analysis by the Hyphenation of Chromatographic Techniques With MC-ICPMS,  Mass Spectrom. Rev., 31 (2012) 504–521. doi: 10.1002/mas.20352

M. Grotti, A. Terol, J.L. Todolí, Speciation analysis by small-bore HPLC coupled to ICP-MS, Trends Anal. Chem., 61 (2014) 92–106. doi: 10.1016/j.trac.2014.06.009


HPLC-ICP-MS Method validation

Danuta Baralkiewicz, Barbara Pikosz, Magdalena Belter, Monika Marcinkowska, Speciation analysis of chromium in drinking water samples by ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC–ICP-MS: validation of the analytical method and evaluation of the uncertainty budget, Accred. Qual. Assur., 18 (2013) 391–401. DOI: 10.1007/s00769-013-1002-y

Izabela Komorowicz and Danuta Baralkiewicz, Arsenic speciation in water by high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry – method validation and uncertainty estimation, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 28 (2014) 159–168. DOI: 10.1002/rcm.6774

Luis Muñoz, Macarena Meneses, Paola Pismante, Oscar Andonie, Fabrizio Queirolo, Susana Stegen, Methodological Validation for the Determination of Toxic Arsenic Species in Human Urine Using HPLC with ICP-MS, J. Chil. Chem. Soc., 59/2 (2014) 2432-2436. doi: 10.4067/S0717-97072014000200007

Toni Llorente-Mirandes, Josep Calderón, Francesc Centrich, Roser Rubio, José Fermín López-Sánchez, A need for determination of arsenic species at low levels in cereal-based food and infant cereals. Validation of a method by IC–ICPMS, Food Chemistry 147 (2014) 377–385. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.138

Mesay Mulugeta Wolle, G.M. Mizanur Rahman, H.M. Skip Kingston, Matt Pamuku, Optimization and validation of strategies for quantifying chromium species in soil based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry with mass balance, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 29 (2014) 1640-1647. DOI: 10.1039/c4ja00133h

Indranil Sen, Wei Zou, Josephine Alvaran, Linda Nguyen, Ryszard Gajek, and Jianwen She, Development and Validation of a Simple and Robust Method for Arsenic Speciation in Human Urine Using HPLC/ICP-MS, J. AOAC International, 98/2 (2015) 517-523. doi: 10.5740/jaoacint.14-103



Standard operating procedures and methods for LC-ICP-MS


EPA Method 321.8 - Determination of Bromate in Drinking Waters by Ion Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry



 Instrument manufacturer's application notes

Agilen Technologies

Handbook of Hyphenated ICP-MS Applications (Second edition, 2012)

Handbook of Hyphenated ICP-MS Applications (First edition, 2007)

#5968-3050EN: Speciation of Arsenic Compounds in Urine of Dimethylarsinic Acid Orally Exposed Rat by Using IC-ICP-MS

#5988-3161EN: Automated Real-Time Determination of Bromate in Drinking Water Using LC-ICP-MS and EPA Method 321.8

#5988-4332EN: Technical Features of ICP-MS Plasma Chromatographic Software

#5988-6697EN: Comparison of GC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS for the Analysis of Organotin Compounds

#5988-9893EN: Fast and Accurate Determination of Arsenobetaine (AsB) in Fish Tissues using HPLC-ICP-MS

#5989-2481EN: Ion Chromatography (IC) ICP-MS for Chromium Speciation in Natural Samples

#5989-3572EN: Determination of Methyl Mercury in Water and Soil by HPLC-ICP-MS 

#5989-5304EN: Determination of Ceruloplasmani in Human Serum by Immunoaffinity Chromatography and Size Exclusion Chromatography-ICP-MS

#5989-5346EN: Ultra-Trace Analysis of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation Products by HPLC-ICP-MS

#5989-5505EN: Routine Analysis of Toxic Arsenic Species in Urine Using HPLC with ICP-MS

#5989-7073EN: Determination of Organic and Inorganic Selenium Species Using HPLC-ICP-MS

#5991-0066EN: Benefits of HPLC-ICP-MS coupling for mercury speciation in food

#5991-0622EN: Arsenic speciation analysis in apple juice using HPLC-ICP-MS with the Agilent 8800 ICP-QQQ

#5991-1044EN: Determination of iopromide in environmental waters by ion chromatography-ICP-MS

#5991-1461EN: Simultaneous quantitation of peptides and phosphopeptides by capLC-ICP-MS using the Agilent 8800/8900 Triple Quadrupole ICP-MS

#5991-2878EN: LC-ICP-MS method for the determination of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in toy materials to meet European regulation EN71-3:2012 Migration of certain elements

#5991-5933EN: Rapid determination of five arsenic species in polished rice using HPLC-ICP-MS


Analytik Jena

Speciation of arsenic in apple juice by LC-ICP-MS on PlasmaQuant® MS Elite


PerkinElmer

#D-6736: Speciation of Five Arsenic Compounds in Urine by HPLC ICP-MS

#D-6780: Chromium Speciation in Water by HPLC ICP-MS 

#D-7303A: Advances in Bromine Speciation by HPLC/ICP-MS

#D-10396: Determination of Arsenic Speciation in Apple Juice by HPLC/ICP-MS

#D-12309: Chromium Speciation in Drinking Water by LC-ICP-MS


Thermo Scientific

Poster WPC 01/2008: Shona McSheehy, Tomoko Oki, Julian Wills, Meike Hamester, Comparison of GC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS for Speciation of Mercury in Blood

#30012: High Sensitivity Arsenic Speciation: HPLC Sector Field ICP-MS

#30076: Simultaneous Phosphorus and Sulfur Speciation by HPLC Interfaced with High Resolution ICP-MS

#40653: Determination of Organo-Arsenic Species in Seaweed Extracts using HPLC-ICP-MS

#40720: Determination of Arsenic Species in Urine Using HPLC Coupled with X Series ICP-MS

#40741: Speciation of Arsenic in Fish Tissues using HPLC coupled with X SeriesII ICP-MS

#40745: Determination of Selenomethionine in Nutritional Supplements using HPLC coupled to the XSeriesII ICP-MS with CCT

#40782: The Speciation of Mercury in Biomedical and Environmental Samples using HPLC coupled to the XSeries 2 ICP-MS

#40807: Chromium Speciation in Cement Extracts and Airborne Particulates using PLC Coupled with the XSERIES 2 ICP-MS

#40837: The Determination of Trivalent and Hexavalent Chromium in Mineral and Spring Water using HPLC Coupled to the XSeriesII ICP-MS with CCT

#43098: Speciation analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in drinking water using anion exchange chromatography coupled to the Thermo Scientific iCAP Q ICP-MS

#43099: IC-ICP-MS speciation analysis of As in apple juice using the iCAP Q ICP-MS

#43126: IC-ICP-MS speciation analysis of As in Organic Brown Rice Syrup (OBRS) using the Thermo Scientific iCAP Q ICP-MS

#43141: Total and speciation analysis of Mercury of contact lens solution by ICP-MS

White paper 70481: Coupling of an Inert Ion Chromatographic System with ICP-Q-MS for Robust and Accurate Elemental Speciation

White paper 70553: Benefits of Coupling IC with ICP-MS



HPLC Maintenance and Trouble-Shooting

Agilent 1100 Series LC and LC/MS Maintenance Videos (only for registered users)
 Delloyd's Lab Tech resources: HPLC Trouble-Shooting
LC/GC ChromAcademy: HPLC TroubleShooter
LCResources: The HPLC Troubleshooting Wizard
Machery & Nagel: HPLC Trouble-Shooting
MedTechnica: Troubleshooting Common HPLC Problems
Sigma-Aldrich: HPLC Trouble-Shooting
Waters: Controlling Contamination in UltraPerformance LC/MS and HPLC/MS Systems


EVISA Database system

Journals Database: Journals related to Liquid Chromatography
Company Database: Professional Organizations relelated to Chromatography
Company Database: Manufacturers providing LC-ICP-MS systems
 Instrument Database: LC-ICP-MS coupling kits
 Instrument Database: HPLC Autosampler
 Instrument Database: HPLC pumps

EVISA link pages

Resources related to analytical sciences
Resources related to mass spectrometry
Resources related to Chromatography
Resources related to quality assurance/quality control


 Other web resources:
 
PerkinElmer Instruments: Online Seminar: Applied Speciation Analysis in Environmental and Clinical Studies
Thermo Scientific: Complete Speciation Solutions
Thermo Scientific: Speciation Analysis by IC-ICP-MS
Royal Society of Chemistry > Analytical Methods Commitee > Report of the Instrumental Criteria Subcommittee> Criteria for the Selection of Instruments: Part IX (1997): Instrumentation for High-performance Liquid Chromatography 



EVISA News related to LC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis (newest first)

March 14, 2016: Tracing Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents from Wastewater, via Surface Water to Drinking Water
August 12, 2015: Call for help: ISO/DIN Project: Standard method for arsenic speciation analysis using HPLC-ICP-MS 
April 26, 2015: Hexavalent chromium in food ?
March 4, 2015: Detection of Gd-based contrast agent in the skin of a patient eight years after administration
July 19, 2012: Triple Quad ICP-MS: Pushing the limits for quantitation of phosphorus and sulfur
January 19, 2012: Detecting Toxic Arsenic Species in Apple Juice 
July 22, 2010: ICP-MS Analysis Suggests Metal-Binding Proteins Significantly More Abundant Than Thought
June 19, 2010: A new Selenium-containing compound, Selenoneine, found as the predominant Se-species in the blood of Bluefin Tuna 
March 25, 2010: Publication on the separation of Gd-based contrast agents awarded
December 14, 2008: New study investigates the interaction of thimerosal with proteins 
March 16, 2008: New selenium-containing proteins identified in selenium-rich yeast
January 31, 2008: New arsenic species detected in carrot samples
January 15, 2008: Species-specific isotope dilution analysis has been adopted as an official method under US legislation
October 7, 2007: Agilent Technologies publishes Handbook of Hyphenated ICP-MS Applications
January 24, 2007: Agilent Technologies joins University of Cincinnati to study impact of metal species in biology and the environment
October 18, 2006: Speciation analysis by LC-ICP-MS finds new application area in clinical chemistry: Ceruloplasmin
September 7, 2006: New Agilent HPLC column for routine determination of arsenic species in human urine by HPLC-ICP-MS
January 25, 2006: A new concentric nebulizer for ICP sample introduction at nL-sample flow rates
October 20, 2004: Thermo Electron and Pau University Establish New Center of Excellence for Elemental Speciation Analysis
August 26, 2004: Ion chromatography and ICP-MS determination of arsenic species in marine samples
Frost & Sullivan, January 6, 2004: Hyphenated Techniques Breathing New Life into the Analytical Instrumentation Industry




Further chapters on techniques and methodology for speciation analysis:

Chapter 1: Tools for elemental speciation
Chapter 2: ICP-MS - A versatile detection system for speciation analysis
Chapter 3: LC-ICP-MS - The most often used hyphenated system for speciation analysis
Chapter 4: GC-ICP-MS
Chapter 5: CE-ICP-MS for speciation analysis
Chapter 6: ESI-MS: The tool for the identification of species
Chapter 7: Speciation Analysis - Striving for Quality
Chapter 8: Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry as a Detection System for Speciation Analysis
Chapter 9: Gas chromatography for the separation of elemental species
Chapter 10: Plasma source detection techniques for gas chromatography
Chapter 11: Fractionation as a first step towards speciation analysis
Chapter 12: Flow-injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for speciation analysis
Chapter 13: Gel electrophoresis combined with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for speciation analysis
Chapter 14: Non-chromatographic separation techniques for speciation analysis




last time modified: December 14, 2016




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