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Non-chromatographic separation techniques for speciation analysis


Liquid-liquid extraction
Anyhow, non-chromatographic separation techniques can also be used for speciation analysis, although their limited separation power does not allow for the separation of many species but rather for the separation of fractions. Such fractionation can be used as sample pretreatment for following speciation analysis performing matrix removal and preconcentration of target species or simply provide first information of fractions of element species (see fractionation...). In cases, where only two fractions have to be differentiated, such techniques can provide "binary speciation" by providing information for inorganic vs. organic  species or highly oxidized vs. low oxidized species such as Cr(VI)/Cr(III), Fe(III)/Fe(II), As(V)/AsIII), Se(VI)/Se(IV) etc.

Non chromatographic separation methods used for such purpose are :
  • Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)
  • Solid-phase extraction (SPE)
  • Precipitation
  • Filtration/Ultrafiltration
  • Dialysis
  • Distillation
  • Derivatization (Hydride generation)

While these separation methods cannot as easily be coupled on-line with detection techniques as chromatographic ones, flow injection (FI) and sequential injection provides some means of automation and coupling for these methods. Anyhow, if fit for purpose, such techniques can provide methods that offer sufficient information on the elemental speciation for a series of situations. Moreover, these non-chromatographic strategies can be less time consuming, more cost effective and available, and present competitive limits of detection.

Related Reviews

Helen C. Rezende, Ione L. S. Almeida, Luciana M. Coelho, Nívia M. M. Coelho, Thiago L. Marques, Non-chromatographic methods focused on speciation of arsenic and selenium in food and environmental samples, Sample Prep., 2 (2014) 31–48. doi: 10.2478/sampre-2014-0004

A. Gonzalvez, S. Armenta, M.L. Cervera, M. de la Guardia, Non-chromatographic speciation, Trends Anal. Chem-, 29/3 (2010) 260-268. doi:10.1016/j.trac.2009.12.006

A. Gonzalvez, M.L. Cervera, S. Armenta, M. de la Guardia, A review of non-chromatographic methods for speciation analysis, Anal. Chim. Acta, 636 (2009) 129–157. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2009.01.06

Mariana A. Vieira, Patricia Grinberg, Cláudio R.R. Bobeda, Mariela N.M. Reyes, Reinaldo C. Campos, Non-chromatographic atomic spectrometric methods in speciation analysis: A review, Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 64 (2009) 459–476. doi:10.1016/j.sab.2009.04.010

Related EVISA Resources

Instrument database: Flow injection instruments
Instrument database: Sample processing workstations
Instrument database: Extraction apparatus
Instrument database: SPE apparatus

 Related EVISA Resources: Brief summaries

About Speciation

   Speciation as a discipline in Analytical Chemistry – Definitions   
   Why should elemental speciation be done ?
   Why is elemental speciation analysis not done routinely ?
   Speciation analysis as a tool to enhance the quality of life
   Speciation and Toxicity

Research fields related to elemental speciation

   Chemical speciation analysis for the life sciences
   Chemical speciation analysis for nutrition and food science
   Trace element speciation analysis for environmental sciences
   Speciation analysis for the study of metallodrugs and their biomolecular interactions

Speciation Analysis - Striving for Quality

   Problems to be solved in the field of speciation analysis
   Error sources in speciation analysis - Overview
   Sample preservation for speciation analysis - General recommendations
   Species transformation during speciation analysis
   Certified Reference Materials for Chemical Speciation Analysis
   Standard methods for elemental speciation analysis

Further chapters on techniques and methodology for speciation analysis:

Chapter 1: Tools for elemental speciation
Chapter 2: ICP-MS - A versatile detection system for speciation analysis
Chapter 3: LC-ICP-MS - The most often used hyphenated system for speciation analysis
Chapter 4: GC-ICP-MS- A very sensitive hyphenated system for speciation analysis
Chapter 5: CE-ICP-MS for speciation analysis
Chapter 6: ESI-MS: The tool for the identification of species
Chapter 7: Speciation Analysis - Striving for Quality
Chapter 8: Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry as a Detection System for Speciation Analysis
Chapter 9: Gas chromatography for the separation of elemental species
Chapter 10: Plasma source detection techniques for gas chromatography
Chapter 11: Fractionation as a first step towards speciation analysis
Chapter 12: Flow-injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for speciation analysis
Chapter 13: Gel electrophoresis combined with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for speciation analysis
Chapter 14: Non-chromatographic separation techniques for speciation analysis

last time modified: December 14, 2016


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