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The establishment of EVISA is funded by the EU through the Fifth Framework Programme (G7RT- CT- 2002- 05112).

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All about quality of measurements

EVISA Resources related to quality assurance/quality control for analytical measurements

Brief summary: Error sources in speciation analysis
Brief summary: Certified Reference Materials for Speciation Analysis
Brief summary: Speciation Analysis - Striving for Quality
Journal Database: Journals related to Quality Assurance
Company Database: Producers of CRMs
Company database: Professional Societies and Associations related to QA/QC
Link page: All about CRMs


Glossary @LabCompliance
Glossary @ NMS
EURACHEM Guide: Terminology in analytical measurement
IUPAC: Terms concerned with internal quality control procedures

Error Sources: General

Analytical Methods Committee, What causes most errors in chemical analysis?, Anal. Methods, 5/12 (2013) 2914-2915. DOI: 10.1039/c3ay90035e

Stephen L. R. Ellison, William A. Hardcastle, Causes of error in analytical chemistry: results of a web-based survey of proficiency testing participants, Accred. Qual. Assur., 17 (2012) 453–464.  DOI 10.1007/s00769-012-0894-2

EVISA Brief summary: Error sources in speciation analysis

Error Sources: Sampling

Analytical Methods Committee, Estimating sampling uncertainty - how many diplicate samples are needed ?, Anal. Methods, 6/1 (2015) 24-26. DOI: 10.1039/c3ay90095A

Michael H. Ramsey, Kary A. Boon, New Approach to Geochemical Measurement: Estimation of measurement Uncertainty from Sampling, rather than an Assumption of Representative Sampling, Geost. Geoanal. Res., 34/3 (2010) 293-404. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-908X.2010.00104.x

Peter Lischer, The impact of sampling on variance functions in analytical chemistry and microbiology, Accred. Qual. Assur., 15/11 (1020) 603-611. DOI: 10.1007/s00769-010-0708-3

G.L. Donati, M.C. Santos, A.P. Fernandes, J.A. Noacutebrega, Sampling and Sample Homogeneity as Introductory Topics in Analytical Chemistry Undergraduate Courses, Spectrosc. Lett., 41/5 (2008) 251-257. DOI: 10.1080/003870102225138

L. Petersen, P. Minkkinen, K.H. Esbensen, Representative sampling for reliable data analysis: theory of sampling, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Sys., 77/1-2 (2005) 261-277. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemolab.2004.09.013

Pierre Gy, Sampling of discrete materials — a new introduction to the theory of sampling: I. Qualitative approach, Chemom. Intell. Lab., 74/1 (2004) 7-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemolab.2004.05.012

Pierre Gy, Sampling of discrete materials: II: Quantitative approach - sampling of zero-dimensional objects, Chemom. Intell. Lab., 74/1 (2004) 25-38. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemolab.2004.05.015

R.W. Gerlach, J.M. Nocerino, C.A. Ramsey, B.C. Venner, Gy sampling theory in environmental studies - 2. Subsampling error estimates, Anal. Chim. Acta, 490/1-2 (2003) 159-168. DOI: 10.1016/S0003-2670(03)00568-3

Error Sources: Weighing and Volumetric Errors

Mettler Toledo, Proper Weighing with Laboratory Balances, Guide Book, May 2012. available from Mettler Toledo

Bruno Wampfler, Matthias Rösslein, Uncertainty due to volumetric operatioms is often underestimated, Talanta, 78/1 (2009) 113-119. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2008.10.047

Arthur Reichmuth, Samuel Wunderli, Michael Weber, Veronika R. Meyer, The Uncertainty of Weighing Data Obtained with Electronic Analytical Balances, Microchim. Acta, 148 (2004) 133–141. DOI: 10.1007/s00604-004-0278-3

R.B. Lam, T.L. Isenhour, Minimizing Relative Error in the Preparation of Standard Solutions by Judicious Choice of Volumetric Glassware, Anal. Chem., 52/7 (1980) 1158-1161. DOI: 10.1021/ac50057a041

Error Sources: Calibration

Dimitrios Theodorou, Ypatia Zannikou, Fanourios Zannikos, Estimation of the standard uncertainty of a calibration curve: application to sulfur mass concentration determination in fuels, Accred. Qual. Assur., 17 (2012) 275–281. DOI: 10.1007/s00769-011-0852-4

Richard J.C. Brown, Thomas P.S. Gillam, Comparison of quantification strategies for one-point standard addition calibration: The homoscedastic case, Anal. Chim. Acta, 716 (2012) 108– 111. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2011.12.041

Oto Mestek, Katerina Malisova,Richard Koplík, Jan Polák, Miloslav Suchánek, Uncertainty of the concentration of a copper calibration solution, Accred. Qual. Assur., 13 (2008) 305–310. DOI : 10.1007/s00769-008-0372-z

Richard J.C. Brown, Matthew R. Roberts, Martin J.T. Milton, Systematic error arising from ‘Sequential’ Standard Addition Calibrations: Quantification and correction, Anal. Chim. Acta, 587 (2007) 158–163. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2007.01.064

Kay Heydorn, Thomas Anglov, Calibration uncertainty, Accred. Qual. Assur., 7 (2002) 153-158. DOI: 10.1007/s00769-002-0440-8

Erik Björn, Douglas C. Baxter, Wolfgang Frech, Calibration errors due to variations in peak characteristics in the measurement of transient signals by inductively coupled plasma-scanning mass spectrometry, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 17 (2002) 1582–1588. DOI: 10.1039/b208868a

Jung-Ki Suh, Jin-Chun Woo, Dong-Min Moon, Minsoo Park, An Error Model for the Evaluation of Uncertainty in Calibration Process, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 22/3 (2001) 247-252. available from BKCS

Guidelines and documents concerning quality assessment

Analytical Methods Committee: Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Briefs brings reliable and up-to-date technical information about aspects of analytical science to members of the Analytical Division and the wider analytical community.  At first an independent publication, it is now published by the RSC in the journal Analytical Methods. It is available gratis for download from this site or directly from the journal site.

EPA's Quality System for Environmental Data and Technology
EPA uses its Quality System to manage the quality of its environmental data collection, generation, and use. The primary goal of the Quality System is to ensure that our environmental data are of sufficient quantity and quality to support the data's intended use. Under the EPA Quality System, EPA organizations develop and implement supporting quality systems. Similar specifications may also apply to contractors, grantees, and other recipients of financial assistance from EPA.

U.S. EPA QA/G-8: Guidance on Environmental Data Verification and Validation
Guidance to help organizations conduct data verification and data validation activities including information on Data Integrity.

U.S. EPA QA/G-9S: Data Quality Assessment: Statistical Methods for Practitioners
This document provides general guidance to organizations on assessing data quality criteria and performance specifications. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Data Quality Assessment (DQA) Process for project managers and planners to determine whether the type,  quantity, and quality of data needed to support Agency decision making has been achieved. This guidance is the culmination of experiences in the design and statis tical analyses of environmental data in different Program Offices at the EPA. Many elements of prior guidance, statistics, and  scientific planning have been in corporated into this document.

U.S. EPA: Training Courses on Quality Assurance and Quality Control Activities
The Quality Staff develops a variety of traditional training courses on quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) activities and the EPA quality system. For each course, there is a facilitator guide with slides and speaker notes, suggested activities, and supplementary materials for student handouts. Instructors should have an applied knowledge in quality system management, as well as quality assurance and quality control activities. Since these courses are generic in nature, instructors should supplement these courses with program-specific activities or material to give context, emphasis, and relevance to your training event.

Nordtest:  Internal Quality Controll–Handbook for Chemical Laboratories
The aim of this handbook is to describe a fit for purpose system for internal quality control at analytical laboratories that are performing chemical analysis. The approach is general, but the examples are  mainly from environmental analyses  

Uncertainty evaluation of measurements

Trace Analysis: A Guide for attaining reliable measurements @ Dr. Paul Gaines
Provides a comprehensive resource on sample preparation and analysis for those interested in elemental determinations by atomic spectrometry, especially ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Issue such as sources of contamination, detection limits, sample preparation, standard stability, and method validation are well covered.

Agilent: Uncertainty made easy
This paper aims to demonstrate a simplified approach to uncertainty assessment which falls broadly within the guidelines set out in both NIS3003 and the ISO Guide.

a network of organisations in Europe having the objective of establishing a system for the international traceability of chemical measurements and the promotion of good quality practices. Eurachem has published a range of guides on quality and accreditation issues in analytical measurement. All Guides are currently available free of charge from the Eurachem Website.

Home of the GUM Method
A web site dedicated to information on "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement".

Integrity Solutions Group: Measurement Uncertainty Calculator Download
Integrity Solutions Group has prepared various analyses and presentations to establish an integrated means to assure technically correct, integrated, and cost-effective Measurement Uncertainty Estimates. A useful tool is a computerized calculation program

NIST: Essentials of expressing measurement uncertainty
This is a brief summary of the method of evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurement adopted widely by U.S. industry, companies in other countries, NIST, its sister national metrology institutes throughout the world, and many organizations worldwide.

NIST: TN 1297: Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results
The publication TN 1297, prepared by B.N. Taylor and C.E. Kuyatt and entitled Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, is in turn based on the comprehensive International Organization for Standardization (ISO) publication, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. 

NMS chemical and biological metrology website
This sides provides a quality assurance training resource as well as documents related to the quality of measurements.

WMO: Stephanie Bell: Measurement Good Practice Guide No. 11 (Issue 2), A Beginner’s Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement, NPL (UK)
The aim of this Beginner’s Guide is to introduce the subject of measurement uncertainty.

Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement
Members of the CITAC/Eurachem measurement uncertainty working group support the utilization of the completely revised Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurements. Their web site has a forum with an uncertainty discussion thread.

Method validation

Validation, Qualification, Quality assurance, Regulations and Accreditation @ LabCompliance US

Igor Renato Bertoni Olivares, Fernando Antunes Lopes, Essential steps to providing reliable results using the Analytical Quality Assurance Cycle, Trends Anal. Chem., 35 (2012) 109-121.  doi:10.1016/j.trac.2012.01.004

T. Saffaj, B. Ihssane, Uncertainty profiles for the validation of analytical methods, Talanta 85 (2011) 1535–1542. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.06.042

P. Araujo, Key aspects of analytical method validation and linearity evaluation, J. Chromatogr. B, 877 (2009) 2224-2234. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.09.030

Thomas P.J. Linsinger, Use of recovery and bias information in analytical chemistry and estimation of its uncertainty contribution, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem., 27/10 (2008) 916–923. DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2008.08.013

Bieke Dejaegher, Yvan Vander Heyden, Ruggedness and robustness testing, J. Chromatogr. A, 1158 (2007) 138–157. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2007.02.086

Piotr Konieczka, The Role of and the Place of Method Validation in the Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) System, Crit. Rev. Anal.  Chem., 37 (2007) 173–190. DOI: 10.1080/10408340701244649

D. Brynn Hibbert, Systematic errors in analytical measurement results, J. Chromatogr. A, 1158 (2007) 25–32. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2007.03.021

Isabel Taverniers, Marc De Loose, Erik Van Bockstaele, Trends in quality in the analytical laboratory. II. Analytical method validation and quality assurance, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem., 23/8 (2004) 535–552. DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2004.04.001

Proficiency Testing

API - American Proficency Institute
API offers PT programs for labs performing microbiology and chemistry analyses on food products and clinical labs.

ASTM Proficiency Testing Programs

EPTIS - European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes
A searchable database of PT schemes available worldwide

CTS - Collaborative Testing Services

iis - Institute for Interlaboratory Studies
The independent iis Institute organises global interlaboratory studies on fuels, petroleum products, petrochemicals and consumer products.

LGC Standards
LGC Standards is a UKAS accredited international provider of proficiency testing (PT) services wit respect to to laboratories undertaking chemical, microbiological and physical measurements including trials.

NAPT - North American Proficiency Testing Program
The North American Proficiency Testing (NAPT) Program (a program of the Soil Science Society of America) assists soil, plant and water testing laboratories in their performance through inter-laboratory sample exchanges and a statistical evaluation of the analytical data.

Laboratory Accreditation

European co-operation for Accreditation (EA)
The European co-operation for Accreditation or EA is an association of national accreditation bodies in Europe that are officially recognised by their national Governments to assess and verify—against international standards—organisations that carry out evaluation services such as certification, verification, inspection, testing and calibration (also known as conformity assessment services).
The NELAC Institute
The NELAC Institute (TNI) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization whose mission is to foster the generation of environmental data of known and documented quality through an open, inclusive, and transparent process that is responsive to the needs of the community.
NELAC: National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Management System
TNI LAMS is a central repository for information regarding the accreditation status of environmental laboratories in the USA. TNI Accreditation Bodies are in the process of migrating accreditation data to this database. Currently it contains complete listings for LA, OR, MN, NH, NJ, TX, VA, UT, and partial for FL. Other ABs are expected soon.

Usefull literature related to QA/QC

G.T. Wernimont, Use of statistics to develop and evaluate analytical methods, AOAC, Arlington, VA, 1987
Useful for the evaluation of uncertainty from interlaboratory studies.

The Analytical Method Committee, Internal Quality Control of Analytical data, Analyst, 120 (1995)  29-34.  DOI: 

The Analytical Method Committee, Uncertainty of measurement – implications for its use in analytical science, Analyst, 120 (1995)  2303.  DOI: 
The AMC of the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) proposes a top-down approach for the evaluation of uncertainty in an analytical laboratory. Information from interlaboratory studies is considered here to obtain an overall estimate of uncertainty. Deals only with general principles of the subject.
Michael Thompson, Roger Wood, Harmonized Guidelines for Internal Quality Control in Analytical Chemistry Laboratories, Pure Appl. Chem., 67 (1995) 649-666. DOI: 10.1351/pac199567040649


National Institutes of Science and Technology: DataPlot
DataPlot is a free, public-domain, multi-platform software system for scientific visualization, statistical analysis, and non-linear modeling.
George Mason University: Statistical Analysis
A collection of resources related to statistical analysis.
John C. Pezzullo: StatPages.Net
Contains links to online calculators, free statistical software, online statistics books, tutorials, and related resources.
UCLA Department of Statistics: Statistics Calculators
Calculators include statistical graphs, power calculations, sample size calculations, etc.
  Department of Statistics at Cargnegie Mellon: Statlib
Contains data and statistical software.

Related EVISA News

September 17, 2015: Arsenic species in rice: A new Australian reference material
August 12, 2015: Call for help: ISO/DIN Project: Standard method for arsenic speciation analysis using HPLC-ICP-MS
July 9, 2015: Accurate determination of hexavalent chromium in agricultural soil

February 15, 2013: JRC-IRMM has released ERM-BC211 certified rice reference material for arsenic speciation analysis
May 3, 2011: New reference materials for the characterisation of selenium-enriched food products
March 20, 2011: Stability of Reference Materials for Speciation Analysis
September 10,2009: Speciation Analysis - Striving for Quality
August 2, 2005: New CRM for Selenomethionine in yeast developed by NRC Canada is now on the market

Other Link pages related to specific domains of analytical sciences:

Resources related to analytical sciences
Resources related to atomic spectrometry
Resources related to molecular spectrometry
Resources related to mass spectrometry
Resources related to chromatography
Resources related to quality assurance/quality control
Resources related to certified reference materials

last time modified: November 15, 2015


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