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Glossary


EVISA is providing a list of terms used in the area of speciation and fractionation analysis. Since speciation analysis is a field of analytical chemistry that is specified by a pronounced interdisciplinary cooperation between different sciences such as biochemistry, medicine, biology, environmental sciences, nutritional sciences and material sciences its terminology is a complex mixture of terms used in all these.

You may search for a term or browse the glossary alphabetically.

(In case that you cannot find the term you may consult more special glossaries or handbooks about nomenclature. For more details please consult EVISA's List of Glossaries)





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wastewater
Water that contains unwanted materials from homes, businesses, and industries; a mixture of water and dissolved or suspended substances.

Western blot
An immunochemical method for identifying proteins in a complex mixture, proteins separated by electrophoresis are transferred (blotted) from the gel medium to a protein-binding nitrocellulose or polymeric membrane; the transferred proteins are then detected by their relative binding to labeled antibodies.

wet deposition
Transfer of chemicals from the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface in atmospheric water precipitation (atmospheric deposition), e.g., rain, snow, or hail, of pollutants that occur in the precipitation, e.g., as a re
sult of Brownian capture, nucleation, dissolution, or impaction.

wetland
Land where water saturation is the dominant factor in determining the nature of soil development and the types of plant and animal communities. Other common names for wetlands are sloughs, swamps, bogs, and marshes.

WHAM
WHAM (Windermere Humic-Aqueous Model) is designed to calculate equilibrium chemical speciation in surface and ground waters, sediments and soils. The model is especially suitable for problems where the chemical speciation is dominated by organic matter (humic substances). WHAM combines Humic Ion-Binding Model V with a simple inorganic speciation code for aqueous solutions. Precipitation of aluminium and iron oxides, cation-exchange on an idealized clay mineral, and adsorption-desorption reactions of fulvic acid are also taken into account. The importance of ion accumulation in the diffuse layers surrounding the humic molecules is emphasized. Model calculations are performed with a BASIC computer code running on a Personal Computer.

whole-cell biosensor
Whole cell biosensors for metallic and metalloid species can be contructed using certain microorganisms, e.g. bacteria, yeast. fungi, lichens, mosses and water plants exploring their ability to accumulate metals. Whole-cell biosensors are using cells that have been genetically modified to signal the presence of extremely low levels of toxins by emitting measurable quantities of light (optical detection) or by changing an electrical potential (electric detection).

Wilson's disease
An inherited condition in which copper fails to be excreted in the bile. Copper accumulates progressively in the liver, brain, kidney and red blood cells. As the amount of copper accumulates hemolytic anaemia, chronic liver disease and a neurologic syndrome develop.

Wilson's disease
Wilson's disease or lentigohepatic degeneration is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease, with an incidence of about 1 in 30,000. Its main feature is accumulation of copper in tissues, which manifests itself with neurological symptoms and liver disease. The estimated heterozygous carrier rate is about 1 in 90, meaning that 1 in 90 people are unaffected carriers of this mutation. The disease affects men and women equally and occurs in all races.

World Health Organization
"The World Health Organization  (WHO) is the directing and coordinating authority on international health within the United Nations’ system. WHO experts produce health guidelines and standards, and help countries to address public health issues. WHO also supports and promotes health research. Through WHO, governments can jointly tackle global health problems and improve people’s well-being.

193 countries and two associate members are WHO’s membership. They meet every year at the World Health Assembly in Geneva to set policy for the Organization, approve the Organization’s budget, and every five years, to appoint the Director-General. Their work is supported by the 34-member Executive Board, which is elected by the Health Assembly. Six regional committees focus on health matters of a regional nature."

WHO's scientific publications are widely recognized as a reference source.

The WHO has a number of regional offices which address the specific issues of those regions:

WHO African Region  (46 countries)
WHO European Region  (53 countries)
WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region  (21 countries)
WHO Region of the Americas  (35 countries)
WHO South-East Asia Region  (11 countries)
WHO Western Pacific Region  (27 countries)

World Resource Institute
The World Resource Institute (WRI) is a moderate Green advocacy group. It defines itself as "an environmental think tank that goes beyond research to find practical ways to protect the earth and improve people's lives."

It publishes Earthtrends on the Internet, an excellent environmental database:
http://earthtrends.wri.org/  (Source: WRI website )











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