EVISA is providing a list of terms used in the area of speciation and fractionation analysis. Since speciation analysis is a field of analytical chemistry that is specified by a pronounced interdisciplinary cooperation between different sciences such as biochemistry, medicine, biology, environmental sciences, nutritional sciences and material sciences its terminology is a complex mixture of terms used in all these.
You may search for a term or browse the glossary alphabetically.
(In case that you cannot find the term you may consult more special glossaries or handbooks about nomenclature. For more details please consult EVISA's List of Glossaries)
"The Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT)
is an independent scientific committee that provides advice to the Food
Standards Agency, the Department of Health and other Government
Departments and Agencies on matters concerning the toxicity of
The Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals (COT) is
one of the independent committees that advise the UK Government's Food
Standards Agency(FSA) and other UK Government departments. (Source: COT website)
a sequential process whereby a solution containing a solute of molecular size significantly greater than that of the solvent molecule is removed from the solvent by the application of a hydraulic poressure which forces only the solvent to flow through a suitable membrane, ususally having a pore size in the range of 0,001 - 0,1 micrometer
A type of nebulizer that generates an extremely fine-droplet aerosol for introduction into the ICP mass spectrometer. The principle of aerosol generation using this approach is based on a sample being pumped onto a quartz plate of a piezoelectric transducer. Electrical energy of 1–2 MHz is coupled to the transducer, which causes it to vibrate at high frequency. These vibrations disperse the sample into a fine-droplet aerosol, which is carried in a stream of argon. With a conventional ultrasonic nebulizer, the aerosol is passed through a heating tube and a cooling chamber, where most of the sample solvent is removed as a condensate before it enters the plasma. However, commercial ultrasonic nebulizers are also available with membrane desolvation systems
Uncertainty is an estimate of error in mathematical
terms. This expression must be defined exactly and is typically
expressed using the standard deviation. Where error is the difference
between the true value and a result or the mean, the uncertainty is an expression involving a calculation where the deviation (difference
between mean and individual result) is used. The hope is that the true
value (which will never be known by man) is within the expressed
uncertainty under the specified conditions.
Unimolecular dissociation is the isolated, spontaneous dissociation of a neutral or an ion, based on the amount and distribution of its internal energy. In the electron ionization source, initial ionization of the molecule by the electrons leads to molecular ions, which then undergo rapid unimolecular dissociations leading to the fragment ions observed in the mass spectrum. Unimolecular dissociation that occurs after the ions leave the source and in the field-free regions of the mass spectrometer leads to metastable ions that can be observed with special methods. Unimolecular dissociation is contrasted with collision-induced dissociation, at least in concept. True unimolecular dissociation evolves into collision-induced dissociation as the operating pressure of the mass spectrometer increases.
The ability to distinguish between an ion at m/z and one at m/z + 1, with a defined valley height between the peaks, across the effective mass range of an analyser. Typically the quoted resolving power for a quadrupole analyser.
"The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), established in
1972, works to encourage sustainable development through sound
environmental practices everywhere. Its activities cover (...) the
promotion of environmental science and information, to an early warning
and emergency response capacity to deal with environmental disasters
See also UNEP.Net, which "delivers authoritative environmental information from a broad range of information and data providers (...)".
(Source: UNEP website)
"As the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is
recognized as the lead federal agency for protecting the health and
safety of people - at home and abroad, providing credible information
to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong
partnerships. CDC serves as the national focus for developing and
applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and
health promotion and education activities designed to improve the
health of the people of the United States."
"CDC, located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, is an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services."
(Source: CDC website)
The Environment Protection Agency's of the USA was founded in 1970. It's
"mission is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment —
air, water, and land — upon which life depends."
The EPA enforces federal environmental protection laws. It registers and
regulates pesticides, enforces laws covering outdoor air and drinking water
quality and regulates the disposal of hazardous and solid wastes.
It has now grown into a big and powerful administration: "18,000 people in
Headquarters program offices, 10 regional offices, and 17 labs across the
country, EPA employs a highly educated, technically trained staff, more than
half of whom are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection
specialists. A large number of employees are legal, public affairs, financial,
and computer specialists."
U.S. EPA's scientific publications are widely recognized as reference
US EPA website
"The FDA is responsible for protecting the public
health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and
veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s
food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA is
also responsible for advancing the public health by helping to speed
innovations that make medicines and foods more effective, safer, and
more affordable; and helping the public get the accurate, science-based
information they need to use medicines and foods to improve their
health." (Source: US FDA website)
The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. (USP) establishes and disseminates officially recognized standards of quality and authoritative information for the use in the manufacture and testing of drugs, excipients, and raw materials. Also called one of the compendia. Other compendia include, for example, Ph.Eur (Pharmacopeia Europa), JP (Japanese Pharmacopeia).The USP, which defined specifications for approved drugs as well as general methods and guidance, merged with the NF, National Formulary, which focused on specifications for raw materials and excipients. General chapters are not legally binding, but specific chapters are considered to be binding, and defined USP methods are accepted by the FDA as an appropriate standard.