gadolinium

Gadolinium is a chemical element that has the symbol Gd and atomic number 64.

Gadolinium is a silvery-white, malleable and ductile rare-earth metal with a metallic lustre. It crystallizes in hexagonal, close-packed alpha form at room temperature, but, when heated to 1508 K or more, it transforms into its beta form, which has a body-centered cubic structure.

Unlike other rare earth elements, gadolinium is relatively stable in dry air. However, it tarnishes quickly in moist air, forming a loosely-adhering oxide which spalls off, exposing more surface to oxidation. Gadolinium reacts slowly with water, and is soluble in dilute acids.

Gadolinium-157 has the highest thermal neutron capture cross-section of any known nuclide with the exception of xenon-135, 49,000 barns, but it also has a fast burn-out rate, limiting its usefulness as a nuclear control rod material.[2]

Gadolinium is strongly paramagnetic at room temperature, and exhibits ferromagnetic properties below room temperature.

Gadolinium demonstrates a magnetocaloric effect whereby its temperature increases when it enters a magnetic field and decreases when it leaves the magnetic field. The effect is considerably stronger for the gadolinium alloy Gd5(Si2Ge2) .

Source: Wikipedia



The term "gadolinium" was found in the following pages:

Material database: American Elements - Gadolinium 155 Oxide Isotope
Material database: IRMM - Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements - BCR-668 - Mussel tissue
Material database: United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) - Gadodiamide
New Studies Question Safety of MRI Contrast Agents | EVISA's News
Tracing Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents from Wastewater, via Surface Water to Drinking Water | EVISA's News
European Medicines Agency recommends to pull linear Gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents from market | EVISA's News
South Korea: 13 gadolinium contrast agents banned until year-end | EVISA's News
Link database: Comparative Toxicogenomics Database: Gadolinium chloride
The behavior of Gd-based contrast agents during wastewater treatment | EVISA's News
Identification and quantification of potential metabolites of Gd-based contrast agents | EVISA's News
Link database: Gadolinium Toxicity
Gadolinium found in the brain of a patient two years after having received a Gd-based contrast agent for medical imaging | EVISA's News
Gadolinium-based contrast agents induce gadolinium deposits in cerebral vessel walls | EVISA's News
New rules for gadolinium-based contrast agents for MRI | EVISA's News
Material database: United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) - Gadodiamide Related Compound B
Brief summary: Speciation analysis for the study of metallodrugs and their biomolecular interactions | EVISA's News
Group 2 gadolinium-based contrast agents seem to be safe even for patients with chronic kidney disease | EVISA's News
Link database: YouTube: Gadolinium, A toxic element used in MRIs
Material database: National Analysis Center for Iron & Steel (NACIS) - NCS ZC73014 - Trace Elements in Tea
Material database: United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) - Gadodiamide Related Compound A