Electrophoresis is based on the migration of charged molecules in solution in response to an electric field. Their rate of migration depends on the strength of the field; on the nett charge, size and shape of the molecules and also on the ionic strength, viscosity and temperature of the medium in which the molecules are moving. As an analytical tool, electrophoresis is simple, rapid and highly sensitive. It is used analytically to study the properties of a single charged species, and as a separation technique.