A Grignard Reagent is an alkyl- or aryl- magnesium halide. This reagent is important in the synthesis of carbon-carbon bonds in the Grignard reaction. Victor Grignard, of the University of Lyons, won the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of Grignard reagents. Grignard reagents are formed by reacting alkyl or aryl halides with organomagnesium metal, conferring a negative charge on the terminal carbon, a rare occurrence. Bromides are most often used, as they work the fastest and are readily available among halides, iodide and chloride are also used, while fluoride is generally unreactive towards organomagnesium compounds. The Grignard reaction is exothermic and because of a oxide layer present on the magnesium, the start of the reaction is sometimes delayed. A crystal of iodine is often introduced to initiate the reaction.
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