Professor Millward’s research theme concerns chemical dynamics of trace metals in marine systems. This has involved the development of the fundamental understanding of trace metal reactivity in contaminated marine systems through the investigation of mechanisms, kinetics and equilibria of particle-water interactions in estuarine and coastal waters. Evaluating time-dependent partitioning functions, covering a range of particle-types (e.g. ferromanganese oxides, quartz, clays, organic colloids), are used in the development of predictive, computer-based models for contaminant transport. Complementary time-dependent, kinetic experiments are also being carried out using radiochemical techniques to follow metal-particle reactions. The results of these studies are being used to enhance the performance of advanced computer codes, such as the Estuarine Contaminant Simulator (ECoS) and the Pollution Information System for Contaminants in Estuaries and Seas (PISCES), which are capable of predicting the fate of contaminants in natural and polluted systems.