Australian Government: National Pollutant Inventory: Manganese & compounds
Manganese is predominantly used to produce ferromanganese, or metallic manganese, which is used in the production of steel to improve hardness, stiffness, and strength. It is used in carbon steel, stainless steel, high-temperature steel, and tool steel, along with cast iron and superalloys. Manganese finds further applications in a number of non-ferrous alloys, especially with aluminium, magnesium, copper and zinc.
Applications for various manganese compounds follow.
- Manganese dioxide is commonly used in the production of batteries, matches, fireworks, porcelain, glass-bonding materials and amethyst glass, as the starting material for production of other manganese compounds, and as an oxidising agent.
- Manganese chloride is used as a precursor for other manganese compounds, as a catalyst in the chlorination of organic compounds, as dietary supplement/food additive, in animal feed to supply essential trace minerals, in paint driers, fertilisers, in dyeing, disinfecting, purifying natural gas, and in dry-cell batteries.
- Manganese sulfate is used in glazes, varnishes, ceramics, dyeing, fertilisers, fungicides, and ore flotation. It is also used in medicines and as a nutritional supplement.
- Potassium permanganate is used as an oxidising agent, a disinfectant, as an anti-algal agent, in metal cleaning, in tanning, bleaching, and as a preservative for fresh flowers and fruits.
- Manganese gluconate is used as a feed additive, food additive, and dietary supplement.
- Manganese oxide is used in textile printing, ceramics, paints, coloured glass, animal feeds, fertilisers, and in welding. It is used as a catalyst in the manufacture of allyl alcohol, as food additive and a dietary supplement.
- Manganese nitrate is used as a colour agent in porcelain and ceramic manufacture, as a catalyst, and in the production of manganese dioxide.
- Manganese acetate is used in textile dyeing, fertilisers, food packaging, feed additives, and in manufacturing paints and varnishes.
- Manganese carbonate is used as a pigment, drier for varnishes, in medications, and as a plant nutrient. It is used in the manufacturing of manganese salts, pharmaceuticals, animal feeds, and ceramics.